References of the images and texts used throughout these posts.

Musei Italian, (2019) Organic design, Available at: 22/1/19 

The Tate, (2019) Robert Morris, Available at: 22/1/19

Pinterest, (2018) The Teddy boys, Available at: 15/1/19

Tribe Magazine, (2018) The mods, Available at: 15/1/19 

Wikipedia, (2018) The Rockers, Available at: 15/1/19 

Punks in solidarity, (2013) The punks, Available at: 15/1/19  

Wikipedia, (2019) New Romantics, Available at: 15/1/19 

Mix mag, (2017) Rave and acid house, Available at:, 15/1/19

Emo culture, (2018) emo, Available at: 15/1/19 

Andy warhol cambells soup, (2018) Available

at: 22/1/19 

citytv, (2019) The simpsons, Available at: 19/2/19 

Tate, (2019) Andy Warhol, Available at: 19/2/19 

The History of M&M’s (2017) M&M’S, Available at: 26/2/19 

Language is a system of difference, (2013) Ferdinand de Saussure Available at: 26/2/19 

Wikipedia, (2019) William Morris, Available at: 6/3/19 

Sustain your style, (2017) Fashions environmental impact, Available at: 6/3/19



An overview on my conversation with Lorna on my presentation and final essay.

The points we covered:

presentation – The order in which my slides should go in and what are the mains point that I needed to cover.

  • Title page
  • pop art
  • essay question outline
  • methods of research
  • Andy Warhol
  • Evelyne Axell
  • President Kennedy
  • Bibliography

we talked through these slides and decided what order they should go in.


Intro – where my research came from

Andy Warhol – As illustrator, overview of Warhols earlier career – 1940s America

Andy Warhol – superstar – explore in more detail how social and cultural events influenced his work.

What was going on in Britain at the time – look at Pauline Boty.

Then look at Evelyne Axell – compare and contrast

Conclusion – Then argue how male/female artists changed the face of art 1960s.

These are the points covered in the tutorial that I will be taking forward to use within my essay and presentation.

Consumerism and Celebrity

Essay questions:

How has a well-established business or brand responded to the changing face of consumerism?

•Why do we consume what we consume?

What is Consumerism? – Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.

Consumerism started with the industrial revolution that began the mass production of goods in factories which led to an economic crisis. Products were being overproduced and the supply of goods would grow beyond customer demand.

For the first time, customers could buy an astonishing variety of goods, all in one place, and shopping became a popular leisure activity. For the first time in history products were available in outstanding quantities, at outstandingly low prices, being available to virtually everyone in the industrialised West.

What are the Pros of consumer culture?

  • The economy is thriving as people are spending money
  • People see the thought of buying new things the key to happiness
  • consumers view time spending money shopping as a bonding exercise between family and friends.

What are the Cons of consumer culture?

  • As the emphasis on happiness can be brought from spending money people are over spending
  • causing financial problems like debt
  • Associated with greed
  • keeping up appearances with family, friends and neighbours

How it is used in marketing?

Marketers often capitalise on consumer culture by emphasising the way a particular product can alter someones lifestyle or happiness.

Businesses associate themselves with certain charities or raise awareness to help build partnerships and awareness for an increase in revenue. This is done as you are drawing in customers who support certain charities due to the businesses association with the charity.

Direct managing can help a business reach out to customers by offering them chances to bond over products. For example the company Avon offer evenings with a rep where friends can get together to sample and buy products. The goal is to create a fun relaxed environment to draw customers in and increase revenue.

Brand establishment

Brands can separate themselves from the competition as a well establish brand can be seen as better and can offer quality products.

Louis Vuitton – Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label’s LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewellery, accessories, sunglasses and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world’s leading international fashion houses in the world.

Louis Vuitton are a prime example of self branding as the logo itself shows an established brand of luxury goods. This is because of its widely recognisable name.

The Louis Vuitton logo exudes wealth and luxury, known for the highest quality materials and craftsmanship. Typically seen in the hands of celebrities, the brand has the ability of being able to charge exorbitant prices. This major brands carries a certain amount of class and wealth to the person having a Louis Vuitton product due to its high price tag.

Sustainability and the Environment

Essay Questions:

Why do we need to achieve more sustainable forms of design and how, with specific examples, can design philosophies, values, or styles respond as a result. What are the primary stumbling blocks to achievingthesesustainable forms?

Evaluate, with reference to lifecycle analysis, some of the strengths and problems of sourcing design sustainably as well as evaluating potentialsolutionsto those problems.

Throughout this post I will be looking how design specifically fashion design has had an impact on the environment and how the industry can be more sustainable to take these issues.

William Morris


William Morris was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production.

William Morris was a main factor in the arts and crafts movement. which rejected the ideas of mass produced products and favoured hand made production. William Morris shared Ruskin’s critique of industrial society and attacked the modern factory, the use of machinery, the division of labour, capitalism and the loss of traditional craft methods. He said that production by machinery was “altogether an evil”

In todays society the majority of production is made abroad due to the cost being cheaper and larger amounts of goods can produced faster and cheaper. This having a huge impact on the environment. For example, air travel, poor labouring conditions, use of plastic and the waste of clothes.

Fashion and Textiles:

(Sustain your style, 2017)

Fashion and textiles account for 10% of all environmental costs within the European Union and 90% of all clothes the UK are imported.

The fashion industry is one of the major polluting industries in the world. The production and distribution of the crops, fibers, and garments used in fashion all contribute to differing forms of environmental pollution, including water, air, and soil pollution.

Make do and Mend

(Amazon, 2019)

Make Do and Mend was a pamphlet issued by the British Ministry of Information in the midst of WWII. It was intended to provide housewives with useful tips on how to be stylish in times of harsh rationing. With its thrifty design ideas and advice on reusing old clothing, the pamphlet was an indispensable guide for households. Readers were advised to create pretty ‘decorative patches’ to cover holes in warn garments; unpick old jumpers to re-knit chic alternatives; turn men’s clothes into women’s; as well as darn, alter and protect against the ‘moth menace’.

The women during and after WWII were so practical with the clothes that were brought and made. There wasn’t the resources to buy new clothes as quickly and cheaply as you can today. Therefore improvisation was key as well as re-using old clothes into new. As well hand sewing was greatly used which is a sustainable and environmentally friendly way of producing clothes.


what are semiotics? Semiotics explores the study of signs as part of communication.

An example of Semiotics is traffic lights –

Traffic Lights

When we see the different colours of a traffic light, we automatically know how to react to them. We know this without even thinking about it. But this is a sign which has been established by cultural convention over a long period of time.

Anything that is used to communicate is defined as a sign for example,

  • A gesture
  • Facial Expressions
  • clothes
  • food
  • music
  • Advertising
  • Cars we choose to drive

All these things and more we relate to certain symbols that trigger are mind to think of a certain thing.

Ferdinand de Saussure

(Language is a system of difference, 2013)

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist who had a big impact on Western Philosophy during the mid-twentieth century. In a sense, his work is more accurately defined as “semiotics”  which is the science of signs.

Saussere’s System of terms:

Signifier – Something that stands for something else.

Signified – The idea of the thing it stands for.

Sign – The union of the two.

An example of this:

The Signifier: The Sign – The colour red

The Signified – The colour is associated with passion and love.

However signifiers can have multiple meanings. The colour red can mean Apple, Blood or fire as well as the meaning of Love. On the other hand, I think that semiotics refers the the first thing that comes to mind when thinking of a particular thing.

Another part of semiotics to look into is Denotation and Connotation.

Denotation – What you see

Connotation – The meaning of what you see

For Example:

The word – COMMITMENT  

The Denotation – A pledge to do

The Connotation – An emotional connection to a person


Essay Questions:

1.Choose a constructed idea, such as beauty, status, celebrity or power.  Has the concept been damaging for humanity and how has art and design been implicit in its promotion? 

2. Select a resolved collection of your own designs and analyse their brand appeal.  Identify how the collection relates to contemporary design practice and discuss in relation to current designers and design philosophy.  

Throughout this post I will be taking information from the branding lecture and my own research as well as how I can relate it back to my own practice.

What is Personal Branding? – Personal branding is a unique selling point or a promise of value from a brand.

For Example:

(The History of M&M’s, 2017)

“The milk chocolate melts in your mouth not in your hand.” – This is an example of how a slogan thats a bit out there can be a selling point even if it is the chocolate doesn’t melt in your hand. This goes to show as long as the selling point is meaningful to prospective customers it will be effective.

By researching into personal branding I have put a list together of important factors to remember when branding yourself.

  • Be honest about yourself and your abilities or the service you provide
  • Online reputation – Everything is documented and shared on social media so having a good positive platform is an important aspect when branding yourself, a product or a business
  • Consistency gives authenticity – Being constant with the standard of your brand
  • Peer approval

When I’m thinking about different companies and there personal branding It’s always the specific attributes that define them, that make them stand out from other businesses. It’s all about cultivating the right perception of your brand.

Post Modernism

Essay Questions:

  1. “Less is more” Ludwig Miles Van Der Rohe (1930s) or “less is a bore” Robert Venturi and in response to Van Der Rohe was central to post-modern philosophy (1970s). Outline the fundimental changes that Post Modernism brought to society and its thinking and how artists or designers represented these changes within art and design.

2. How do 4 or more of the postmodern term listed below inform the concepts, working practice and visual language of contemporary artist(s) or designer(s)? Evaluate how and why those concepts are significant.

What is Post Modernism? – Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. It can also be described as rebellious and a loose collection of style with a range of movement in style. Also it can be considered an art movement within an art movement.

For example:

  • Abstract Expressionism
  • Fluxus
  • Conceptual Art
  • Pop Art
  • Minimalism
  • Performance art
  • Minimalism

Post Modernism I would say this is a dominant movement within art, literature, film music, drama, architecture and history. To name a few Post Modernism examples from today – The Simpsons. Breaking Bad. Family guy. South Park.

The Simpsons


The Simpsons’ presents to its viewers a huge range of diverse and unique characters and has covered almost the entire spectrum of American society. Postmodernism is a perspective which tends to reject many of the accepted values of modernism, and this can certainly be seen in ‘The Simpsons’.  

I have found a great example of this from Simpsons from another blog – Critical Cartoon. This is what is shown:

“We also see the writers reflect upon postmodernism within the parameters of the Simpsons being a Christian, nuclear family. They attend church most Sundays and it is clear they see their faith and positions as members of the church as important aspects of their place within Springfield. However on a personal level the characters faith seems less important. Lisa identifies as a Buddhist, Homer pronounces Jesus as ‘Jeebus’ and Bart’s disdain for the church is evident on several occasions (probably because he views it as an authoritarian body).” (Critical cartoon, 2015)

I think this example really shows post modernism has been shown through a popular tv show.

Andy Warhol

(Tate, 2019)

The image above is a series of screen prints done by artist Andy Warhol of Marilyn Monroe. These images were made in the months after her death in 1962. Andy Warhol was fascinated by both celebrities and by death itself; this series fused the artist’s interests. The colour contrasted against the monochrome that fades out to the right is suggestive of life and death.

You can see the Post modernist theme throughout by the use of mass produced images. Creating imagery this way shows the traditional differences between fine art and popular culture.

Social History

Through out this post I will be evaluating the following questions:

Evaluate how and why social historical factors impacted a post 1940 design movement, such as interiors / architecture design or graphic publication.

Evaluated how and why social historical factors impacted a post 1940 fashion style period.

To be able to answer these questions I will be looking into different art movements from the 1940s and the historical factors that led to them having such a huge impact.

Post War Britain

Britain had changed profoundly since 1945. This included the huge increase in population and the demand for cars and houses. This had an impact on the natural landscape and multiple consequences for the environment.

Furthermore, large-scale immigration, particularly from the West Indies and South Asia, but also from other areas such as Eastern Europe, has made the population ethnically far more diverse. This meant in the 1970s there were about

  • 375,000 Hindus, muslims and Sikhs in Britain
  • By 1993 the figure was 1,620,000

Moral Codes

In 1960 legal changes were made that allowed Abortion and homosexuality to be legal as well as capital punishments abolished. Whilst also improving the position that women had. However, these changes were linked to the shift in religious practice. By the 1990s, only one in seven Britons was an active member of a Christian church.

Organic design

Style includes:

  • mild smooth lines
  • sculptural forms
  • using nature and synthetic materials
  • delicacy of the the form
  • projects were to meet the social, physical and spiritual needs

Organic Design was pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright who believed in creating harmony between people and nature and regarded architecture as a means of achieving a perfect balance between the manmade and natural worlds. This belief was expressed by the use of natural materials and smooth rounded forms.

(Musei italian, 2019)

In Scandinavia this trend was overlapped by “democratic design”, conceived as a way of improving everyday life. Between the 1930s and 1950s Scandinavian design became world leader and a benchmark for other countries around the World.

I feel that Scandinavia has been a huge influence within design trends within history as well as currents currents and that the concept of Hygee is an important concept within Scandinavian style and history.

Pop Art

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. Artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, and Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns in the United States.

Product labelling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell’s Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol.

(Andy Warhol Cambells soup, 2018)

I was lucky enough to view Andy Warhol’s Cambell soup cans at the Louis Vuitton foundation museum in Paris, last year. I can see why it is the most well known image of American Modern art due to it Pops of strong colour. The series of thirty two canvases gained international acclaim as a breakthrough in pop art. For me Andy Warhol is the artist I think of when someone says pop art.



  • simplicity and harmony in interiors and furniture
  • open spaces in interior
  • avoiding inner walls
  • using basic geometric shapes
  • colour- white
  • elegant

Minimal Art emerged as a movement in the 1950s and continued through the Sixties and Seventies. It is a term used to describe paintings and sculpture that thrive on simplicity in both content and form, and seek to remove any sign of personal expressivity. The aim of Minimalism is to allow the viewer to experience the work more intensely without the distractions of composition.

Robert morris (The Tate,2019)

To begin to answer the questions at the beginning of the post I have researched different design periods that interest me. I have also use information from the history of post 1940s and looked at how they have had an influence on these design movements.

Youth cultures

Throughout this post I will be looking into these 2 essay questions in relation to youth cultures.

  1. what is the meaning of a style? Evaluation the contexts and meanings of a style with reference to a particular sub culture.
  2. compare and contrast the effects of youth culture in two different decades from 1950 to 2010.

I will be using notes from the lecture as well as my own research to look further into youth cultures and taking a deeper look into the different sub cultures from the 1950s to 2010.

Youth culture refers to the way that teenagers conducts their lives. This includes:

  • styles
  • behaviours
  • music
  • beliefs
  • vocabulary
  • clothes
  • sport
  • dating


Teddy boys is a mainly english sub culture typified by young men inspired by the styles worn by the dandies in the Edwardian period, which Savile row tailoring tried to re-introduce after the second world war.

The fashion phenomenon appeared in the 1950s as a rebellious side effect of the introduction of American Rock n’ Roll.

The Teddy boys style included long fitted trousers often exposing socks, draped jackets, high neck white collared shirt and narrow slim Jim tie. The clothes were often tailored made and very expensive which many paid through weekly installments. This showed that image was vital and the look was very smart and well groomed was an expensive style.

The Teddy Boys were known as the first rebel high profile teenagers.


1960s – The Mods and the Rockers

The mods and the rockers were two different conflicting British youth sub cultures.

The rockers subculture centred on motorbikes and there image reflected this. Rockers generally worse protective clothing such as black bike leathers with decorated biker jackets and motorcyle boots. The common rockers hair style was pompadour and there music choice was Rock n’ Roll.

The mod subculture was centred on fashion and music and many mods rode scooters. Mods wore suits and clean cut outfits. A film Quadrophenia shows a portray of the subcultures.

The two rival gangs rioted. News stories from May 1964 stated that mods and rockers were jailed after riots in seaside resort towns in southern England, such as Margate, Brighton, Bournemouth and Clacton.Newspapers described the mod and rocker clashes as being of “disastrous proportions”, and labelled mods and rockers as “vermin” and “louts.”

Related image
The mods (Tribe magazine, 2018)
Image result for the rockers subculture
The Rockers ( Wikipedia, 2019)

1970s – The Punks

A film about the punks – the great Rock n’ Roll Swindel

Punks were known to be working class. There image image was:

  • scruffy
  • earthy
  • dirty
  • They had bad language

Punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film. It is largely characterised by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, and is centred on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock.The rocker subculture came about due to factors such as: the end of post-war rationing in the UK, a general rise in prosperity for working class youths, the recent availability of credit and financing for young people, the influence of American popular music and films, the development of transport cafes and a peak in British motorcycle engineering. The name “rocker” came not from music, but from the rockers found in 4-stroke engines, as opposed to the two stroke engines used by scooters which ridden by mods.

Image result for the punks subculture
The punks ( Punx in solidarity, 2013)

1980s – New Romantics

The New Romantic movement was a pop culture movement that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s. The New Romantic movement was characterised by flamboyant and eccentric fashion were men wore make- up.

Influences included:

  • David Bowie
  • Marc Bolan
  • Roxy Music
Image result for new romantics sub culture
New Romantics (Wikipedia, 2019)

1990s – Rave and Acid house

A rave is a large dance party featuring performances by DJs and occasionally live performers playing electronic music, particularly electronic dance music. The music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system, typically with large sub woofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is accompanied by laser light shows, projected images, visual effects and fog machines. The word “rave” was first used in the late 1980s to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.

Acid House continued to remain prominent throughout the 90’s rave scene with the predominant logo of the culture being a yellow smiley face symbol which was commonly associated with Acid House.

The rave subculture was largely based around drugs with teenagers using drugs to be able to stay awake and party all night.

Image result for 90s rave and acid house
(Mixmag, 2017)

2000s – Emo

The emo subculture sprouted from fans of emotional hardcore or emocore. a style of punk rock in the 1980s. Emocore music is known for its loud, confessional, expressive, and emotional characteristics. It’s generally associated with youths who are dispirited and angry with society, other people, or themselves.

The style of Emo includes

  • skinny jeans
  • Tight T-shirts
  • long Fridges

The Emo sub culture amongst teenagers involve emotional issues such as depression, self harm and suicide.

Image result for emo
(emo culture, 2018)